Archaeology

The Archaeology of the Holy Land: From the Destruction of Solomon's Temple to the Muslim Conquest

By Jodi Magness

This e-book presents an advent to the archaeology and heritage of historic Palestine - smooth Israel, Jordan, and the Palestinian territories - from the destruction of Solomon's temple in 586 BCE to the Muslim conquest in 640 CE. specified cognizance is paid to the archaeology of Jerusalem and the second one Temple interval, for the period of Herod the good and Jesus. for every interval, the booklet deals a ancient historical past for the Mediterranean global and the traditional close to East, in addition to the occasions in Palestine. significant websites akin to Masada, Caesarea Maritima, and Petra are tested in archaeological and ancient aspect, in addition to the fabric tradition - cash, pottery, glass, and stone vessels - of every interval. This publication offers an intensive assessment of the archaeology of this traditionally shiny a part of the area.

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Jewish historian Josephus, Alexander took a detour inland to Jerusalem on his option to Egypt, to pay homage to the God of Israel and the excessive priest Jaddua (Antiquities eleven: 325–31). This tale used to be fabricated to teach that even Alexander the nice said the omnipotence of the God of Israel. within the publication of Daniel (8:1–21), the writer foretells Alexander’s conquests, utilizing a mystery language within which animals denote people: within the 3rd yr of the reign of King Belshazzar a imaginative and prescient seemed to me, Daniel. . . . I appeared up and observed a ram status beside the river. It ᪉ sixty seven The Archaeology of the Holy Land had horns. . . . I observed the ram charging westward and northward and southward. All beasts have been powerless to resist it, and nobody may well rescue from its strength; it did because it happy and have become powerful. As i used to be gazing, a male goat seemed from the west, discovering the face of the complete earth with out touching the floor. The goat had a horn among its eyes. It got here towards the ram with the 2 horns that I had visible status beside the river, and it ran at it with savage strength. . . . The ram didn't have the ability to resist it; it threw the ram right down to the floor and trampled upon it, and there has been not anyone who might rescue the ram from its energy. . . . He [Gabriel] acknowledged, “Listen, and that i will let you know what is going to ensue later within the interval of wrath; for it refers back to the appointed time of the tip. As for the ram that you simply observed with the 2 horns, those are the kings of Media and Persia. The male goat is the king of Greece [Alexander]. ” (NRSV) The ebook of Daniel is an apocalyptic paintings – that's, a piece that predicts the downfall of this international and a coming time of salvation – and it's pseudepigraphic, which means Daniel isn't the author’s genuine identify (his actual identification is unknown). even though the angel Gabriel supposedly unearths that in the future Alexander will defeat the Persian king, the publication of Daniel used to be composed round 167–164 B. C. E. (the time of the Maccabean revolt), this means that it postdates Alexander’s conquests via a century and a part! less than the Ptolemies, Jerusalem and Judea have been a part of the province of Syria. This province (and others) incorporated other kinds of administrative devices, which have been ruled in several methods. for instance, there have been Greek towns (poleis), akin to Akko/Acre (Ptolemais) and Gaza; Greek colonies, reminiscent of Samaria, Beth-Shean (Scythopolis), and Amman (ancient RabbathAmmon/Philadelphia); and army colonies, similar to the district of Ammon (governed via the Tobiads). Judea (with Jerusalem) was once an independent unit ruled through the Gerousia, a council of clergymen and elders led by way of the excessive priest. This administrative constitution was once retained even after the Seleucid king Antiochus III conquered Palestine in 198 B. C. E. The Judeans have been categorised as an ethnos – that's, a tribal state in ownership of its personal territory. in accordance with this definition, a Jew (Greek Ioudaios) was once anyone of Judean parentage, whose homeland legally was once Judea, and who used to be obligated to worship the Judean nationwide deity – the God of Israel.

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